Innovation Activity: Localization, New Trends and Assessment Methods
The purpose of this article is to identify trends and spatial features of the formation of "growth points" in Kazakhstan, based on characteristics of localization and concentration of innovative activity. The main attention in the article is given to the assessment of the various levels of industrial development and innovative activity of Kazakhstan regions, taking into account territorial features and the main directions of industrial development. The article discusses the basic concepts that explain the patterns of regional growth, the localization of high-tech industries and innovative activity, as well as methods for assessing them. Index and coefficient methods, ranking methods, grouping and rating methods were used for the analysis. To assess the innovative activity of regions, a modified rating scale was used, and a modified Krugman concentration index was proposed and used to assess the concentration of innovative activity. We have used relative indicators calculated on the basis of national statistics on science and innovations in Kazakhstan to build the ratings. The assessment of parameters of localization of scientific potential and innovative activity in Kazakhstan regions is carried out. The regions were ranked and the aggregated rating score for the regions was calculated. A typology of the regions of Kazakhstan was developed according to the level of innovation activity, four types of zones of localization of innovation activity were identified: high level (A), medium level (B), low level (C), unsatisfactory level (D). To characterize the local concentration of production of innovative products in Kazakhstan, modified Krugman concentration indices are calculated. The established zones (centers) of localization of innovative activity were identified, and it was concluded that they do not yet have a large impact on industrial development of the country as a whole. In general, positive trends in the growth of indicators of innovative activity and technological progress are observed throughout the country. Nevertheless, the rate of change remains extremely low, which indicates the uneven development of innovations in regions, as well as their territorial and industrial isolation, which has a negative impact on the speed of development of the technological process in the country.