The Streamline of Research and Experimental Development’s Infrastructure in Lithuanian National Innovation System
A key element of competitiveness in the knowledgebased economy is to create linkages among academic society, research institutions, private sector and government. R&D (research and development) infrastructure involves mentioned subjects and could be interpreted as the main instrument of National Innovation System (NIS). Scientific researches theoretically attempt to describe the conception of R&D and innovation system. However there is a gap in explanation of constitution of R&D infrastructure and how it reflects in NIS. The detailed theoretical conception of R&D infrastructure is missing as well. This complicates understanding of construction and importance of NIS. The research problem being solved in this article is: how to highlight the correlation of R&D infrastructure and NIS in order to present recommendations for Lithuanian National Innovation System. The aim of the article was to highlight the correlation and streamline of R&D infrastructure and NIS in order to present recommendations for construction of Lithuanian National Innovation System. Seeking to solve scientific problem and to reach the aim, the conception of R&D infrastructure is crystallized in the article. The article stresses that the main elements of R&D infrastructure are R&D funding system; human resources and patent system. There was systemized classification of approaches to R&D infrastructure in the article as well. As the conclusion of this analysis two approaches to the infrastructure of R&D - institutional and functional – were highlighted and explained. Analysis of hypothetical constitution of NIS enabled to highlight characteristics of state’s economy which may guarantee effective functioning of NIS. Hypothetical correlation of R&D infrastructure and NIS was presented analyzing knowledge flows in the NIS. The model of knowledge flows in the NIS was developed as well. Emphasizing that government is the main player of construction and implementation of R&D infrastructure, central and shared functions of government are systemized in the article. Analyzing theoretical methods of NIS’s construction there were pointed the main aspects which should be evaluated in order to prepare effective state’s innovation policy. Methodologically there were enumerated four steps how nations can take deliberate action to shape the character and results of their national innovation system. The practical findings were based on SWOT (strengths, weaknesses; opportunities and threats) analysis of Lithuanian R&D infrastructure. The essential threats of Lithuanian National Innovation System were named: linear funding model which is strongly bureaucratically controlled; shortage of horizontal interplay between governmental sectors which directly use R&D; miss of precise R&D funding mechanism; too conservative approach to innovations creation and application. As the outcome of theoretical analysis, recommendations how to construct NIS are presented. Finally, the possible construction of Lithuanian NIS is suggested. It is based on linkages among governmental, academic and private institutions.