Synergy of Migration Theories: Theoretical Insights


  • Vilmante Kumpikaite Kaunas University of Technology
  • Ineta Zickute Kaunas University of Technology



migration, theories of migration, classification of migration theories, Push and pull model, Neoclassical theories of migration, New theories of migration


Topic of migration is often discussed in nowadays. However, it is quite complicated phenomenon. Causes of migration can be understandable “deeper” after classifying and summarizing the main theories in an appropriate way. The most of scientists agrees that migration’s theory, which could explain all aspects and reasons of migration, will never be created because of confusing variety of processes included in it. However, the purpose of this article was not to propose such single theory. Various consistent patterns and correlations can be seen in the migration’s movements. After classifying and summarizing these aspects, it is possible to understand the causes of migration “deeper”. Thus, the authors of this paper tried to analyze, sort out migration theories and to put them together. In the first part of this article, Economic equilibrium, Heckscher-Ohlin, Todaro and Harris-Todaro, Human capital, Early decision-making, Dual labor market, Self-selection, Family migration, Relative deprivation, Motivation decisions, Rational expectation, Consumption, Network, Cumulative causation, Migration systems, Zelinsky, Skeldon, Migration hump and Push and pull theories of migration were analyzed. In the second part, all above mentioned theories according to their features, similarities and period were classified in the Neoclassical, New, International movement solvents and Spatio-temporal transition theories groups. It should be noted that not all above mentioned theories could be directly attributed to one group. Some theories, as Early decision-making theory, could be attributed to both Neoclassical theory (because of personal factors) and New theory (because of family characteristics included in personal factors) of migration. Finally, theories groups were associated with interrelationships and summarized in to one integrated Push and pull model. Push and pull model has been developed by a lot of scientists continuously: Ravenstein, (1889), Lee, (1966), Altbach, (1998), Mazzarol & Soutar, (2002), and many others (Wang, 2010). Many theorists have followed footsteps of migration Push and pull model. These theories have been improved and supplemented with new push or/and pull factors. Thus, it can be said that most migration theories can be combined together. Push and pull model of discussed migration theories could be one of suggestions how to integrate theories into one model. This integrated model of theories could reveal the reasons for migration wider and deeper. Proposed model can be used as integrated and complex model seeking to understand migration theories and the main migration reasons based push and pull motives deeper.


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