Sustainable Urban Transport System Development Reducing Traffic Congestions Costs
Keywords:urban transport, sustainable development, traffic congestions, external costs
AbstractTraffic congestions are formed due to irrational city facilities in communication terms and improper traffic system's facilities; improper crossings of streets with intense traffic; absence of high-speed continuous traffic main streets; no passenger traffic parking lots in the largest routs. In conseąuence of congestions there arises increasing pollution, impairment of people health and economic loss.Investigation of traffic flows is complex multidimensional task, solution complication of which depends on complexity extent of transport network. In order to analyze the particularity of forming congestions, investigation describing in details the interaction of vehicles and road facilities are necessary.The main research purpose is to determine vehicle's waste of time with flow close to system overcrowding or moving in congestion. In order to evaluate congestions expenses and rare occasional loss many parameters and assumptions are necessary, because these parameters are expressed by physical expressions. The most important of them are: value of travel time is used to convert time loss and/or reduced reliability and comfort into monetary units; variation of demand, defining reaction of possible consumers to internalization of exterior expenses of congestions.Expenses evaluation methods used are based on the evaluation of travel time. To this end lots of investigations have been performed in various European countries. Actually experts are inclined to use general VOT values for public and goods traffic. Traffic flow intensity is determined by specified averages traffic flow speeds in separate sectors, travel time and, the main thing, defining sector throughput. Flow particularity has been determined, as well, i.e. impact of a number of lanes and evaluated wasted time with different intensity of vehicles flow.Having data on traffic flows, it is possible to determine freąuency of arriving and outgoing vehicles and time intervals between them and evaluate situation in a crossing. Schemes of vehicles movement were formed, projecting the arrival of vehicles one by one or by blocks, and data on flows directions and intensity collected. According to ąueue extent it is possible to judge about ąuality of traffic control system and loading of crossing with transport and forecastpossible congestions.After the analysis of some transport flows in the city traffic, investigation of traffic congestions reasons, these conclusions could be made: there is no methodical facilities development programme of the city streets; roads with intense traffic crossings of the city are old-fashioned, and their throughput is three or four times smaller than streets throughput and traffic flows intensity; there is no high speed public traffic service created and this becomes a pretext to use an individual transport, increasing traffic intensity and traffic congestions; there is no reverse lanes in the streets with intense traffic, what could increase road throughput and no public transport traffic lights before crossings, which at least would reduce, congestions of this traffic.Sustainable urban traffic system development reducing congestions costs shall be based on long term "sustainable people and goods mobility vision ".
ECONOMICS OF ENGINEERING DECISIONS