The Application of Cluster Analysis for the Selection of Key Competences of Future-Oriented Entrepreneurs


  • Alicja Ewa Gudanowska Faculty of Engineering Management, Bialystok University of Technology, Poland
  • Anna Kononiuk Faculty of Engineering Management, Bialystok University of Technology, Poland
  • Katarzyna Dębkowska Polish Economic Institute, Poland



cluster analysis, competences, competence selection, future-oriented entrepreneur, future thinking


Trends and megatrends affecting the labour market are changing rapidly. Inevitable changes force
a permanent need to redefine employees' competences in order to meet employers' expectations The scientific problem raised by the authors of the article is defining a methodology of identifying competences of future-oriented entrepreneurs. The aim of the article is to present the potential of cluster analysis for the selection of key competences of future-oriented entrepreneurs in the context of foresight research. The main research methods applied for this study were literature review and cluster analysis. Literature review covered global literature review, domestic literature review, higher education offer review, commercial foresight courses review as well as case studies. Both extensive literature review and the analysis of business practices allowed to identify more than one thousand six hundred competences of a future-oriented entrepreneur. The huge amount of competences were then the subject to preliminary assessment which resulted in the list of 39 items. The application of cluster analysis enabled to further reduce the number of competences. Finally, seven competences to be mastered by future-oriented entrepreneurs could be recommended such as, but not limited to: the ability to find and interpret weak signals of change and disruptions (wild cards and abnormal phenomena); the ability to act proactively; the ability to manage change and uncertainty; the ability to run strategic foresight within organization,
 the ability to create organizational vision (both collective and individual); and seeing the big picture.

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