Interpersonal and Organizational Dimensions of Leaders’ Transformational Behaviours Measured by LPI©


  • János Fehér Károli Gáspár University of the Reformed Church in Hungary
  • Péter Kollár Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences



Transformational Leadership, Leadership Behaviours, Leadership Practices, Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI©) by Kouzes and Posner, Leadership Development


This paper discusses characteristics of leaders’ transformational behaviours by using the five-factor Exemplary Leadership model measured by Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI©) (Kouzes & Posner, 2002). Literature is scarce on investigating the psychometric properties of this instrument. In this study factor analysis, cluster analysis and ANOVA are used for identifying changes of the internal variable structure of Leadership Practices Inventory© and examining correlations between leadership scales and objective variables on a sample of 1638. The main goal of this paper is to report on a new, two-dimensional factor structure found, in which one of the factors represents a development-motivation (i.e., stimulation), and the other, a vision-organizational transformation dimension. Through identifying the two-dimensional structure, this research statistically confirms the literature suggestion (Northouse, 2001; 2019) about the existence of an interpersonal and an organizational dimension of transformational behaviours. Along the two factors an original cluster structure of ‘transformational leadership’ and ‘non-leadership’ and hypothetical further clusters are proposed. By using the factors, significant relations between leadership activities and management levels, leaders’ qualifications, as well as organizational variables like ownership, sector, size, and functional unit are found. Beyond their theoretical implications, the results of this research can be used in management education, self-development of managers, and managerial practice.

Author Biographies

János Fehér, Károli Gáspár University of the Reformed Church in Hungary

János Fehér (PhD) is an Associate Professor and Academic Director of the Human Resources BA Program at Károli Gáspár University of the Reformed Church in Hungary, where he teaches Management and HRM-related subjects. He earned his PhD from Szent István University, where he holds an Affiliated Professor position. He served as Associate Professor and Program Director at IMC/International Management Center (the first Graduate School of Business in the CEE region, in affiliation with the University of Pittsburgh); and Visiting Associate Professor at Temple University Philadelphia, CWRU Cleveland, and Budapest Corvinus University. He has been a Consultant/ MD Program Director/Trainer for leading Hungarian and international companies.

Péter Kollár, Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences

Peter Kollar (PhD) is a Senior Lecturer at the Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences. He earned his PhD from the Doctoral School of Management and Business Administration. He conducts research on the topics of leadership, organisational behaviour, human resource and competency management. He has taught a variety of HRM and leadership subjects like Human Resources Management, Strategic Human Resource Management, Human Resources Systems and Practices, Organisational Culture, and Leadership at the Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences in BA and MSc courses.  Besides lecturing and researching, he is a Methodology Expert at Europa Training Ltd. He participated in several national and international projects as a consultant.

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