Networking and Familiness as Factors Stimulating the Early Internationalization of High-Tech Firms




early internationalization, high-tech firms, born globals, internationalization of firm, international entrepreneurship, international business, familiness, networks


The problem of the role and importance of time in the process of firm’s internationalization belongs to the mainstream of international business research, as is the problem of the key role of high-tech firms operating across borders. The main goal of the paper is to understand how selected factors determine early internationalization of high-tech firms in Poland as an emerging market. The theoretical framework of the article is built on international entrepreneurship literature, supported by the network perspective and family firm theory. Then, the article focuses on the high-tech firms that become international through export or any other entry mode in the first three years of their life. A survey was conducted on the sample of 263 firms operating in high-tech industries in Poland. The results of our empirical studies show that high-tech firms functioning in networks and clusters are more likely to start their international expansion early. Moreover, family high-tech firms are less likely to internationalize early than non-family firms.

Author Biographies

Nelly Daszkiewicz, Gdansk University of Technology, Poland

Nelly Daszkiewicz – full professor at Gdańsk University of Technology, Faculty of Management and Economics (Poland). Since 2019, she is the head of the Department of Economics (until September 2021 the Department of Economic Sciences). She is a member of scientific committees of national and international scientific conferences and a reviewer of many journals. She was the promoter of three doctoral dissertations and a reviewer in numerous doctoral proceedings. She is the author and co-author of several books and numerous scientific articles and has participated in several national and international research projects. Main research areas of prof. Nelly Daszkiewicz include international entrepreneurship, in particular internationalization of firms and small and medium-sized enterprises.

Krzysztof Wach, Krakow University of Economics, Poland

Krzysztof Wach – full professor at Krakow University of Economics (Poland). Professor of social sciences (2020), habilitated doctor of economics (2013), PhD in management (2006), Head of the Department of International Trade (since 2016), Director of the Centre for Strategic and International Entrepreneurship (since 2014), Member of the Committee of Economic Science Polish Academy of Sciences (PAN, since 2020), member of.  the Committee of Economic Science Polish Academy of Skills (PAU, since 2022), member of the Committee of Organization and Management Polish Academy of Sciences (PAN) – branch in Kraków (since 2023). Expert in international entrepreneurship, author of several books and over 200 articles, editor-in-chief of the scientific quarterly Entrepreneurial Business and Economics Review (ESCI WoS, Scopus), member of editorial boards of several scientific journals, including European Journal of International Management (SSCI WoS, Scopus), Central European Management Journal (ESCI WoS, Scopus). Visiting professor at various foreign universities, including ones in the USA, the UK, Spain, Croatia, China, Taiwan, Vietnam, Austria, Slovakia, and Ukraine.

Additional Files